Japanese Grammar – Particles


All about Japanese Particles

The function of Japanese particles

Japanese particles are small words that indicate relations of words within a sentence. They follow other words such as nouns, verbs, adjectives are parts of a sentence. Some but not all can be compared to prepositions in English. The Japanese language uses a total of 188 particles.

List of 188 Japanese particles

No Particle Meaning / usage
1 は (wa) Indicantes the topic of a sentence
2 か (ka) At the end of a sentence indicating a question
3 が (ga) Indicates the subject of a sentence
4 に (ni) Indicates a location
5 の (no) Indicates possession
6 は (wa) Indicates a contrast between 2 items
7 に (ni) Indicates time or frequency
8 へ (e) Indicates direction
9 を (wo/o) Indicates the direct object of a verb
10 と (to) Used to connect and list up multiple items
11 や (ya) Used to connect and partially list up multiple items
12 など (nado) Used with や (ya) to partially list up multiple items
13 も (mo) means “too”, “either”, “also”
14 も (mo) both…and…, neither…nor…
15 に (ni) Indicates the indirect object of a verb
16 に (ni) Indicates the surface of a object where some action takes place
17 で (de) Indicates the location of an action
18 と (to) Together with
19 の (no) Indicates an apposition
20 から (kara) Indicates a starting point in time or place
21 より (yori) Indicates a starting point in time or place but more formal than kara (20)
22 まで (made) Indicates a limit on time, space or quantity
23 くらい (kurai) Indicates an approximate amount
24 ほど (hodo) Indicates an approximate amount
25 ばかり(bakari) Indicates an approximate amount
26 で (de) Indicates a means or material
27 か (ka) Indicates a choice or alternative
28 を (wo/o) Indicates a point of departure
29 を (wo/o) Indicates a route of a movement/motion
30 に (ni) Indicates a point of arrival
31 に (ni) Indicates an entering motion
32 に (ni) Used together with a verb to express a purpose
33 と (to) Used when quoting someone
34 と いう (to iu) Indicates the name of something
35 とか (toka) “something like”
36 で (de) Indicates a limit or scope
37 と (to) Indicates a comparison
38 より (yori) Indicates a comparison
39 より (yori) Indicates superlative
40 くらい (kurai) Indicates a comparison
41 ほど (hodo) Indicates a comparison in a negative sentence
42 か (ka) someone, something
43 も (mo) “nothing”, nobody”, nowhere” if used with an interrogative word
44 に (ni) Used with a verb to indicate a change or choice
45 をする (wo/o suru) Expresses an occupation or position
46 でも (demo) Indicates emphasis
47 でも (demo) Together with an interrogative word it means “anything”, “anyone”, any time”
48 で (de) Indicates a cause or a reason
49 から (kara) Indicates a source such as a giver, a cause or material
50 に (ni) Indicates a person who gives something or who provides a service
51 は (wa) + が (ga) Indicates the relation between an object / subjects and a verb or adjective
52 が (ga) Connects two sentences with the meaning “but…”
53 を (wo/o) Used with an verb expressing emotions, it indicates the cause of this emotion
54 で (de) Indicates a state / condition of something
55 で (de) Limits numbers
56 だけ (dake) Indicates a limit on things or amounts
57 だけ (dake) Indicates a limit on an action or state
58 で (de) Indicates the time of completion or expiration of something
59 でも (demo) Following a noun, means “or something like this”
60 も (mo) Emphasizes in a positive or negative way
61 でも (demo) Indicates two or more items as an example of a larger list
62 ばかり (bakari) Indicates that an item, state or action is a single one
63 ばかり (bakari) Indicates an action was just completed
64 ところ (tokoro) Indicates that an action takes place, just took place or is about to take place
65 が (ga) Indicates the subject of subordinate clause when it is different from the subject of the main clause
66 から (kara) conjunction meaning “after” or “since”
67 ながら (nagara) Indicates that an action is happening simultaneously
68 が (ga) Indicates the subject of a relative clause
69 の (no) Indicates the subject of a relative clause
70 から (kara) Used as a conjunction and indicates a cause or reason
71 ので (node) Indicates a strong reason
72 の (no) Indicates a modified pronoun
73 の (no) Used to nominalize verbs & sentences
74 なら (nara) Used as a conjunction and indicates a supposition or condition
75 なら (nara) Indicates a topics and is used as an alternative to wa (No.1)
76 と (to) Indicates a condition that results in an inevitable outcome
77 ば (ba) Used as a conjunction to express a probable results
78 ばいい (ba) “all you have to do…”
79 ば (ba) Used to enumerate two or more actions or states
80 たら (tara) Used as a conjunction, indicates a supposition or condition
81 たら (tara) Used as a conjunction to indicate that one action takes place before the action described in the main sentence
82 ところ (tokoro) Used as a conjunction to indicate a condition that brings about a discovery
83 ても (temo) a conjunction meaning “even if”
84 ても (temo) Used with a set of contrasting verbs and adjectives
85 ても (temo) Together with an interrogative word it means “no matter what/where/who”
86 ては (tewa) Indicates a condition which will bring a negative conclusion
87 のみ (nomi) Indicates a limit (similar to だけ dake)
88 まで (made) “even”, used to emphasize
89 さえ (sae) “even”, used to emphasize
90 さえ (sae) “if only” or “as long as”
91 のに (noni) “although”, “in spite of the fact that”
92 ながら (nagara) “although”, “though”, “but”
93 とか (toka) Indicates that a list of two ore more things or actions is not exhaustive
94 たり (tari) List of two or more actions in no particular sequence
95 たり (tari) Indicates actions or states that alternate
96 のに (noni) Indicates a purpose or function
97 のです (no desu) Asks for an explanation or reason
98 きり (kiri) Indicates a limit to an amount
99 きり (kiri) Indicates the last time a certain incident occured
100 とも (tomo) Used with numbers and counters to mean “both” or “all”
101 ながら (nagara) Used with numbers and counters to mean “both” or “all”
102 しか (shika) Used with a negative verb to indicate limits on conditions or quantities meaning “only”
103 しかない (shika nai) used with a verb meaning “to have no choice but to”
104 し (shi) Used as a conjunction, indicating two or more actions or states
105 し (shi) Used as a conjunction indicating a reason
106 とも (tomo) Indicates inclusion
107 に (ni) Indicates the one acting or the one acted upon
108 か (ka) Indicates uncertainty about something
109 か (ka) Indicates uncertainty about a state or reason
110 だの (dano)  Indicates two or more items or actions of a longer list (similar to toka とか)
111 だの (dano) Indicates a pair of opposite actions or states
112 など (nado) “something to the effect”
113 やら (yara) Indicates two or more items of a longer list
114 やら (yara) Indicates uncertainty
115 ても (temo) Indicates an approximate limit with the meaning of “at the most”
116 とも (tomo) Indicates an approximate maximum or minimum
117 は (wa) Indicates that a number is the higher or lowest limit
118 と (to) Emphasizes a number in a negative sentence
119 など (nado) Indicates examples
120 くらい (kurai) Expresses an extent of an action or condition similar to ぐらい gurai
121 ほど (hodo) Indicates the extend of an action or condition
122  ほど (hodo) “the more… the more…”
123 だけ (dake) “as… as…”
124 だけ (dake) “the more… the more…”
125 と (to) “about to do something”, “trying to do something”
126 と (to) “even if…”, “whether… or not”
127 なり (nari) “either…”, “whether…or”
128 なり (nari) “anything”, “anyone”, “any time”
129 こそ (koso) Emphasizes the word preceding it
130 こそ (koso) Emphasizes a reason or a cause
131 ては (tewa) Expresses repetition of an action
132 に (ni) Joins two or more nouns to indicate a list of items
133 に (ni) Connects two or more items to indicate a matching or a contrast
134 にしては (ni shite wa) Indicates a generally agreed upon standard
135 にとって (ni totte) Indicates an effect or value of a person or thing
136 について (ni tsuite) “about”, “concerning” something or someone
137 とも…とも (tomo… tomo) “can’t say whether… or…”
138 が (ga) “even if”, “whether… or not”
139 は (wa) Emphasizes contrasting elements
140 として (toshite) Indicates status, capacity or function
141 として (toshite) Provides emphasis in a negative sentence
142 ばかりでなく(bakari de naku) “not only… but also”
143 だけ (dake)  used to express “not only…but also”
144 のみ (nomi) used to express “not only…but also”
145 なり (nari) “as soon as”
146 がはやいか (ga hayai ka) “as soon as”
147 やいなや (ya ina ya) “as soon as”
148 かないうちに (ka nai uchi ni) “no sooner had”, “hardly had”
149 ばかり (bakari) Indicates the only action left to do
150 ばかりに (bakari ni) Emphasizes a reason or cause
151 すら (sura) Emphasizes in the meaning of “even”
152 など (nado) Expresses a humble attitude towards an item
153 とも (tomo) “no matter what”, “even if”
154 ともあろうひと (tomo aroo hito) To express that someone did something not to be expected
155 どころか (dokoro ka) “far from”, “not to mention”
156 だけに (dake ni) Indicates a cause or reason
157 までもない (made mo nai) “there is no need to…”
158 ものの (mono no) “but” or “although”
159 ところで (tokoro de) “even if”
160 けれども (keredomo) Connects 2 sentences meaning “but” or “although”
161 けれども (keredomo) Indicates a preliminary remark
162 が (ga) Used to soften a statement or refusal
163 けれども (keredomo) Indicates a desire
164 ね (ne) At the end of a sentence to confirm a statement
165 ね (ne) At the end of a sentence to soften a request or suggestion
166 ね (ne) At the end of a sentence to indicate a reason or cause
167 ねえ (nee) At the end of a sentence to indicate emotion
168 よ (yo) At the end of a sentence to state a strong conviction
169 よ (yo) At the end of a sentence to articulate a request or suggestion
170 かしら (kashira) At the end of a sentence to express uncertainty, a request or a question and mainly used by women
171 かな (kana) At the end of a sentence to express uncertainty, a request or a question and mainly used by men
172 な (na) At the end of a sentence and used by men to confirm a statement
173 な (na) At the end of a sentence to express a prohibition, used by men
174 なあ (naa) At the end of a sentence to express emotion, used by men
175 なあ (naa) At the end of a sentence to express a desire
176 の (no) At the end of a sentence to express a question or soften a command, used by women
177 わ (wa) At the end of a sentence to soften a statement, used by women
178 さ (sa) At the end of a sentence to indicate slight emphasis, used by men
179 こと (koto) At the end of a sentence to indicate emotion, used by women
180 こと (koto) At the end of a sentence to express a suggestion or invitation, used by women
181 もの (mono) At the end of a sentence to express a reason or excuse
182 とも (tomo) At the end of a sentence to express an assertion
183 ものか (monoka) At the end of a sentence to express a negative determination, used by men
184 や (ya) At the end of a sentence to soften a statement, request or suggestion, used by men
185 たら (tara) At the end of a sentence to indicate a suggestion or proposal
186 やら (yara) At the end of a sentence to indicate a rhetorical question with a negative implication
187 ぜ (ze) At the end of a sentence to add for to sentence, used by men
188 ぞ (zo) At the end of a sentence to add force to a sentence or to express a question to oneself


Comments

  1. 文法と漢字がけっこ難しい。。。けど。。。。。
    いしょうにまた日本語が勉強しましょう。。。。。。!!!!
    頑張ります・・。。。。。。

  2. the next column should sentence’s sample

    • This is a good idea. Now that I changed the blog’s layout I have more space. I will try what it looks like if I add another column.
      Thanks again for sharing the idea.

  3. Rikke Olsen says:

    Is there some way to download it?

  4. The table says the particle no. 4 is “に” indicating location, but when you click the link, you get the particle “に” marking a dative case (which is no. 15 in the table).

  5. it’s very informative and very useful….勉強しましょう。
    どうもありがとうございます。

  6. Aren’t まま and 同じ also particles? If not, why?

  7. wow! too much! no wonder many ppl are saying we don’t like particles

  8. Andrie Julio says:

    I think, even it’s not impossible to write down all the particles, but as a study material it’s more than enough, and I really apreciate you guys effort. As for the other particles, or the other use of particles written above, I’ll say experience would be the best teacher.
    As for the last, maybe I can put one down
    “Nagara” ながら – while doing something
    e.g. Arukinagara hon wo yomu 歩きながら本を読む – I read a book, while walking

  9. estephany says:

    can you give me an example to used ぜ so i can understand better( with the english translation)

    お願い島津、ありがとう
    (^ω^)

  10. saijothi says:

    Can you please post example for each particle

  11. Tank you very much for this work!!! :D

  12. wow… its all to much,,, i hope i can. Amin.
    Thank you so much

  13. It would be better if the multiple uses of particles like ‘to’ were listed one after the other

  14. This person says:

    I see だけ in the list, but I often hear だけど. Could you please explain it? Is it also a particle or something else?

    Thanks for the effort you put into this website. For someone like me who has to teach themselves, it’s a great help!

  15. Excellent site. Plenty oof helpfuyl information here.
    I am sending it too several friends anss addcitionally sharing in delicious.
    And certainly, thanks in your effort!

  16. Tsuboki says:

    more than 100 particles? Oh my, that puts Nepali to shame :O

  17. Biswanath Bhaumik says:

    It is observed from the list that a particular particle can be used to express different moods and purposes .For our better learning, examples are required.

  18. Niraj Pachhai says:

    better if it would be with examples.

  19. Smita Nayak says:

    Thanks

  20. Thank you for the good writeup. It in fact
    was a amusement account it. Look advanced to far added
    agreeable from you! However, how can we communicate?

Trackbacks

  1. […] Japanese Grammar – Particles. […]

  2. […] is used as particles to connect kanji, but also to spell native Japanese words for which no kanji exists. Katakana is […]

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